The theory of cellular mechanism of LLLT can be summed up as follows+:
- Photons from laser are absorbed by mitochondria, increasing mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption and electron transport – enabling an increase of ATP that leads to normalization of cell function in hypoxic or damaged cells.
- Signaling pathways are activated by molecules such as reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and cyclic-AMP.
- Transcription factors are activated and move to the nucleus where they cause an increase in expression of gene products.
- New gene expression products lead to a cascade of metabolic effects, resulting in various physiological
- Changes such as inhibition of apoptosis, hair growth, improved tissue repair, resolution of inflammation.
+Hawkins, D., N. Houreld, et al (2005). “Low Level laser therapy (LLLT) as an effective therapeutic modality for delayed wound healing.