Mechanism of Action

The theory of cellular mechanism of LLLT can be summed up as follows+:

  1. Photons from laser are absorbed by mitochondria, increasing mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption and electron transport – enabling an increase of ATP that leads to normalization of cell function in hypoxic or damaged cells.
  2. Signaling pathways are activated by molecules such as reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and cyclic-AMP.
  3. Transcription factors are activated and move to the nucleus where they cause an increase in expression of gene products.
  4. New gene expression products lead to a cascade of metabolic effects, resulting in various physiological
  5. Changes such as inhibition of apoptosis, hair growth, improved tissue repair, resolution of inflammation.

+Hawkins, D., N. Houreld, et al (2005). “Low Level laser therapy (LLLT) as an effective therapeutic modality for delayed wound healing.